Injectable and Implantable Biomaterials for Anal Incontinence

Hotouras A., Giordano P.
Pelvic Floor Disorders pp 491-502

Passive faecal incontinence and post-defecatory leakage can be difficult to treat as they do not appear to respond to neuromodulatory therapies. Bulking agents have been increasingly used over the last few years with the aim to augment the structure of the anal sphincter complex in order to achieve a better mechanical “seal”. The aim of this chapter is to describe the technique of implantation, the different types of materials used, and the report on their safety and efficacy.